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Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery for New Moms

Losing belly fat after pregnancy can be difficult but is possible with the right exercise and lifestyle habits started at the proper time. New mothers should first allow their bodies to heal after giving birth before starting exercise to reduce belly fat. A gradual, whole-person plan combining home exercises, moves focused on the core muscles, improved nutrition, and expert advice prepares moms to safely and sustainably lose stubborn pounds from pregnancy in a realistic timeframe. This comprehensive guide will cover everything new mothers need to flatten their stomachs through the best exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery.


Understanding Your Post-Pregnancy Belly and the Role of Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery


During pregnancy, your body undergoes a myriad of physiological changes to accommodate and nourish the growing fetus. One of the most noticeable transformations is the expansion of the abdominal area. Understanding these changes is essential before embarking on any exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery regimen.

Physiological Changes During and After Pregnancy

During pregnancy, your uterus expands, pushing against the abdominal wall. The wall comprises muscles and connective tissues that stretch to accommodate the growing baby, often leading to weakened and separated abdominal muscles, a condition known as diastasis recti. Hormonal shifts also promote fat accumulation in the abdominal area to provide energy reserves for labor and breastfeeding.


After delivery, hormonal levels gradually normalize, and your uterus starts to shrink back to its pre-pregnancy size. However, the abdominal muscles and skin that were stretched during pregnancy might take time to regain their former tone and elasticity. This process varies significantly among individuals, influenced by factors like genetics, age, activity levels, and the number of pregnancies.

Realistic Timeline for Reducing Post-Pregnancy Belly Fat

Setting a realistic timeline is crucial when planning to exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. While it’s tempting to jump into a rigorous exercise routine immediately after childbirth, health experts advise against it. Typically, women can safely start exercising six to eight weeks after delivery, given that they have their healthcare provider’s clearance. However, these exercises should be gentle and gradually increase in intensity.


For those who had a C-section or complicated delivery, the waiting period might be longer. Always consult with your healthcare provider to determine when it’s safe to begin any exercise for reducing belly fat after delivery routine. 


During the initial postpartum weeks, focus on gentle activities like walking and deep breathing exercises. These help improve circulation, ease stress, and prepare your body for more strenuous exercises in the future. As your strength and endurance improve, you can slowly incorporate more challenging workouts targeting the abdominal area.


In terms of expectations, it’s essential to understand that regaining your pre-pregnancy belly might take time. For some women, it might take a few months, while for others, it might take over a year. Consistency in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery is key, as is practicing patience and kindness towards yourself during this journey.


Each body responds differently to exercise, and various factors influence the speed and manner in which you lose belly fat. Some of these factors include your metabolic rate, dietary habits, sleep patterns, stress levels, and the consistency and intensity of your workouts. Remember, it’s not about how quickly you shed the pounds but about doing so in a way that is healthy and sustainable.


When you initiate your plan to exercise to reduce belly fat post delivery, remember that spot reduction — losing fat from a specific area — is a myth. Exercises will help tone and strengthen the muscles in your belly, but cardio and full-body workouts, combined with a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle, are crucial for losing belly fat.


For those who’ve waited for a while after delivery, be assured that it’s never too late to start. The benefits of engaging in the best exercise to reduce belly fat after delivery extend beyond aesthetics. It improves your cardiovascular health, boosts your energy levels, enhances your mood, and contributes positively to your overall well-being and quality of life.

Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery

Initiating the Belly-Reduction Journey: When and How to Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery Safely

When to Start Postpartum Exercises Safely

Initiating your postpartum fitness journey, it’s vital to understand when it’s safe to start with exercises, especially when aiming to exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. The onset of this journey varies among individuals, contingent upon multiple factors including the type of delivery, overall health status, and the presence of any complications during childbirth.


Normal or vaginal deliveries usually have a shorter recovery time. Many healthcare professionals suggest waiting for a minimum of six weeks before engaging in any form of exercise postpartum. This period allows your body to heal and recover from the stresses of childbirth.


For those who have experienced a C-section or any other complications, the waiting period might be extended. C-section is a significant surgical procedure, and jumping into exercise prematurely can hinder the healing process. A typical recommendation is to wait at least eight to ten weeks but always consult with your healthcare provider before starting any exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery.


During the initial weeks, it’s essential to listen to your body. If you feel pain, experience excessive fatigue, or any other unusual symptoms, it’s crucial to halt and seek medical advice immediately.

Gradual Reintroduction of Exercise After Normal Delivery

For women who have had a normal delivery, the process to reintroduce exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery should be gradual and cautious. Start with light activities, primarily focusing on rebuilding your endurance and stamina. Walking is a fantastic choice; it’s low-impact and offers a multitude of health benefits, from improving your mood to enhancing your cardiovascular health.


As you gain more strength and confidence, incorporate pelvic floor exercises like Kegels, which are crucial for strengthening the muscles that support your uterus, bladder, and bowels. With time, introduce more abdominal-focused exercises to target belly fat specifically. It’s crucial to note that consistency is key in this phase. Committing to a daily routine, however small, lays a strong foundation for more intensive exercises later.

Gradual Reintroduction of Exercise After C-Section Delivery

After a C-section, reintroducing exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery is a meticulous process. The initial focus should be on healing and recovery. Start with gentle walks, but only if you feel comfortable and with your doctor’s approval. Walking enhances circulation, aids in preventing blood clots, and contributes positively to your mental health.


Upon receiving your healthcare provider’s green light, gradually introduce exercises targeting the transverse abdominis – the deepest abdominal muscle layer. Engage in pelvic floor exercises to fortify your core and improve stability. Avoid exercises that place strain on your abdominal area or those that involve lifting heavy weights during the initial months.


The reintroduction of exercise for reducing belly fat after delivery after C-section requires patience. Since everyone’s body is different, comparing your progress with others can be discouraging. Celebrate small wins, stay consistent, and understand that progress takes time.

Concluding Thoughts

Embarking on your journey to exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery demands understanding, patience, and a systematic approach. Knowing when and how to start is pivotal for a safe and effective postpartum fitness journey. Ensure to consult with healthcare professionals to receive personalized advice and recommendations.


Engaging in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery is not just about reclaiming your body but also about embracing a healthier lifestyle for your well-being and the well-being of your family. So, initiate this empowering journey with optimism and determination, and witness the transformative power of commitment and consistency.

Efficient Home Exercises for Post-Pregnancy Belly Reduction and Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery


Incorporating effective home exercises for post-pregnancy belly reduction can provide excellent results, especially when integrated with valuable insight on exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. Let’s explore some efficient and gentle exercise routines you can initiate at home to begin your journey towards a flatter, toned belly post-pregnancy.

Gentle Movements: Yoga Exercises for New Moms

Yoga is a fabulous starting point for new mothers looking to engage in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. It offers a gentle yet efficient approach to reintroducing movement into your daily routine.


  • Cat-Cow Pose: This pose improves flexibility and circulation while targeting your core. Begin on your hands and knees, inhaling as you arch your back (cat), and exhaling as you round it (cow). This not only stretches your body but also strengthens your abdominal muscles.
  • Bridge Pose: Lie on your back with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor. As you exhale, lift your hips towards the ceiling, engaging your pelvic and glutes muscles. This pose strengthens the core and enhances stability.
  • Seated Forward Bend: This gentle stretch targets the back and helps elongate the spine, also promoting relaxation and stress reduction.


Incorporate these poses into your daily routine, gradually increasing the duration and intensity as you feel more comfortable and stronger.

Exercise to Reduce Belly Fat at Home with Minimal Equipment

There are several efficient exercises you can perform at home to facilitate belly fat reduction without significant equipment, aligning with the principles of exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery.


  • Pelvic Tilts: Engage your abdominal muscles while lying down, tilting your pelvis upwards. It helps in strengthening the core and improving posture.
  • Kegel Exercises: These exercises strengthen the pelvic floor, providing support to your uterus, bladder, small intestine, and rectum.
  • Leg Slides: Lying on your back, slowly slide one leg down the bed or mat, keeping the other bent. Alternate legs. This exercise engages your lower abdominal muscles without placing stress on your stomach.


Engage in these exercises consistently, starting with a few repetitions and increasing as you grow stronger.

Visual Aid: Exercise Demonstration with Pictures for Clarity

Providing visual aids is crucial to ensure you’re performing exercises correctly and efficiently as you engage in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. Detailed images or infographics can serve as valuable references, showcasing the correct postures and movements for each exercise. This visual assistance promotes better understanding, allowing you to execute each exercise with precision and confidence, maximizing the benefits while minimizing the risk of injury.


  • Instructional Graphics: Include step-by-step images demonstrating the starting position, the movement, and the finishing position of each exercise.
  • Infographics: Utilize infographics to highlight key points, tips, and precautions for each exercise, offering a quick and easily accessible reference for users.
  • Video Demonstrations: Consider incorporating short video clips that demonstrate each exercise in real-time, providing a dynamic and interactive learning experience for users.


Initiating an exercise to reduce belly fat post delivery regimen at home can be a seamless and effective process with the right guidance and tools. From gentle yoga movements to more targeted exercises, these routines can serve as your initial steps toward reclaiming your pre-pregnancy body. With the aid of visual guides, you can confidently and safely perform each exercise, laying the foundation for a stronger, healthier, and happier you post-pregnancy.

Special Focus Exercises for Late Starters in Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery


Embarking on a fitness journey, especially with a focus on exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery, might not always commence immediately post-pregnancy. For various reasons, some women may start their exercise routines one or two years after delivery. This section addresses the unique needs and considerations for late starters in post-pregnancy belly reduction exercises.

Strategies for Women Beginning After 1 or 2 Years Post-Delivery

Starting the exercise journey well after delivery presents its set of challenges and opportunities. For late starters, the body might have fully recovered from the strains of childbirth, providing a stable platform to engage in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. However, prolonged inactivity might have led to muscle atrophy or additional weight gain, making it crucial to approach exercises with care and planning.


  • Gradual Introduction: For late starters, it’s essential to introduce exercise gradually. Begin with low-impact exercises to avoid overstressing your body.
  • Consistency Over Intensity: Engaging consistently in moderate exercises is more beneficial than sporadic high-intensity workouts. Consistency helps in building endurance and strength over time.
  • Holistic Approach: Incorporate a combination of cardiovascular exercises, strength training, and flexibility workouts to achieve balanced physical fitness and effective belly fat reduction.

Effective Exercises for Those Who Missed the Initial Window Post-Delivery

For individuals who commence exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery late, certain exercises are particularly effective in targeting belly fat and improving overall fitness.


  • Aerobic Exercises: Activities like brisk walking, jogging, cycling, or swimming are excellent for burning calories and improving cardiovascular health. They aid in weight loss, including the reduction of belly fat.
  • Strength Training: Incorporating weight or resistance training helps in building muscle mass. More muscles translate to a higher metabolic rate, facilitating more efficient calorie burning, even at rest.
  • High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT): This involves short bursts of intense exercise alternated with low-intensity recovery periods. HIIT is effective for weight loss and belly fat reduction, offering the benefit of shorter workout sessions.
  • Abdominal Exercises: Engage in exercises that specifically target the abdominal muscles, like planks, crunches, and twists. These exercises help in toning and strengthening the core, providing a firmer and flatter belly appearance.

Essential Tips for Late Starters

  • Medical Consultation: Before starting any exercise for reducing belly fat after delivery regimen, consult with healthcare professionals to understand your health status and any potential limitations.
  • Personalized Plan: Craft a workout plan that aligns with your fitness level, health conditions, and weight loss goals. A personalized plan enhances the effectiveness of exercises and reduces the risk of injuries.
  • Patience and Persistence: Progress may be slow initially, but with patience and persistent effort, you’ll witness gradual improvements in your fitness and a reduction in belly fat.
  • Professional Guidance: Consider engaging a fitness trainer or joining a fitness group specifically designed for postpartum women. Professional guidance provides motivation and ensures you are performing exercises correctly and effectively.


Starting late on exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery doesn’t mean you’ve lost the chance to regain your pre-pregnancy body. With the right strategies and exercises, late starters can effectively reduce belly fat and enhance their physical fitness. The key is to approach this journey with planning, consistency, and commitment, celebrating each small victory along the way.

Essential Tips for a Flat Tummy Post-Pregnancy Through Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery and More


Achieving a flat tummy post-pregnancy involves a multifaceted approach, intertwining dietary habits, lifestyle changes, and exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. Let’s delve into additional crucial tips, including breastfeeding, the use of abdominal belts, and more, to aid you in maintaining a flat tummy post-pregnancy effectively.

Breastfeeding and Its Role in Weight Loss

Breastfeeding can play a pivotal role in your journey, complementing your routine to exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. It’s not only vital for your baby’s health but also beneficial for the mother.


  • Calorie Expenditure: Breastfeeding is a calorie-intensive process. A mother can burn approximately 500 to 700 calories per day, aiding in gradual weight loss.
  • Uterine Contraction: It helps in the contraction of the uterus, facilitating its return to the pre-pregnancy size more swiftly, indirectly aiding in a flatter tummy.
  • Hormonal Balance: Breastfeeding helps in regulating the hormones, which can facilitate a more stable and positive mood, assisting mothers in coping better with the stress, often a hindrance to weight loss.


The Use of Abdominal Belts: Pros and Cons

Abdominal belts can be a tempting option for those eager to attain a flat belly alongside exercise to reduce belly fat after delivery. Here are the pros and cons:



  • Support: Provides much-needed support to the abdomen and lower back, aiding women who are recovering.
  • Posture Improvement: Helps in maintaining an upright posture, crucial during exercises and breastfeeding.
  • Confidence Boost: Offers an instant slimming effect, which can be a confidence booster for many new mothers.



  • Not a Weight Loss Tool: While it provides support, it does not actively contribute to weight loss.
  • Dependence: Prolonged use may lead to dependency and can weaken the abdominal muscles over time.
  • Discomfort: Some women might find it uncomfortable and restrictive.


Always consult with a healthcare provider before deciding to use abdominal belts, especially when you engage in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery.

Bonus Tips for Maintaining a Flat Tummy Beyond the Initial Postpartum Period

Maintaining a flat tummy goes beyond the initial period of postpartum recovery and exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. Consistency in healthy practices is crucial.


  • Consistent Exercise: Engage in a consistent exercise routine, incorporating cardiovascular workouts, strength training, and flexibility exercises to maintain a toned and flat belly.
  • Healthy Eating: Adopt a balanced and nutritious diet. Include plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains while minimizing processed foods and sugary snacks.
  • Hydration: Staying hydrated is essential for metabolism and overall health. Drinking adequate water can also aid in feeling full, preventing overeating.
  • Stress Management: Manage stress levels through mindfulness practices, yoga, meditation, or engaging in activities that relax and rejuvenate you.
  • Adequate Sleep:** Ensure you get sufficient quality sleep. Sleep deprivation can lead to weight gain, as it disrupts the balance of hunger and satiety hormones.


The pursuit of a flat tummy post-pregnancy is a comprehensive endeavor involving various strategies alongside the best exercise to reduce belly fat after delivery. From breastfeeding to using abdominal belts, and adopting a lifestyle that supports your fitness goals, every action plays a significant role in your journey towards a flat and toned tummy. With dedication, patience, and the right approach, achieving and maintaining a flat tummy post-pregnancy is an attainable goal for every mother.

Expert Advice Corner on Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery

The Expert Advice Corner provides valuable insights and answers to frequently asked questions concerning post-pregnancy belly reduction. Engaging with experts in fitness and nutrition, we address common concerns and offer professional recommendations for effectively implementing exercise to reduce belly fat after delivery.

Q&A with Fitness and Nutritional Experts on Post-Pregnancy Belly Reduction


Q: When is the right time to start exercises post-delivery?

Expert Answer: The appropriate time to begin exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery varies among women, depending on their individual health status, type of delivery, and overall comfort levels. Generally, women with normal deliveries might start after six weeks, while those who had C-sections might need to wait for at least eight to ten weeks. Always consult with your healthcare provider for personalized advice.


Q: What are the most effective exercises for post-pregnancy belly fat reduction?

Expert Answer: The effectiveness of exercises can depend on the consistency and dedication of the individual. A combination of aerobic exercises, strength training, and targeted abdominal exercises like planks, crunches, and pelvic tilts can be particularly effective. Engaging in a variety of exercises not only aids in belly fat reduction but also contributes to overall fitness and well-being.


Q: Can dietary changes alone help in reducing post-pregnancy belly fat?

Expert Answer: While dietary changes play a crucial role in weight loss, combining a balanced diet with exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery will yield optimal results. Focus on a diet rich in whole foods, with plenty of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains, while minimizing the intake of processed foods, sugary snacks, and high-fat items.

Q: Are abdominal belts effective for achieving a flat tummy post-pregnancy?

Expert Answer: Abdominal belts can offer support and help improve posture, but they are not magical solutions for weight loss. They should be used as supportive tools alongside dietary changes and exercises for the best results.


Q: What role does breastfeeding play in post-pregnancy weight loss?

Expert Answer: Breastfeeding can assist in post-pregnancy weight loss by burning extra calories, helping the uterus contract, and balancing hormones. However, it’s essential to maintain a nutritious diet to support breastfeeding and provide adequate nourishment to both mother and baby.


Addressing Common Concerns and Providing Professional Recommendations


Concern: I started exercising late; is it still possible to lose belly fat?

Recommendation: Absolutely. While the approach might need to be adjusted, it’s never too late to start the best exercise to reduce belly fat after delivery. Begin with gentle exercises, gradually increasing intensity. Consistency is key, along with a healthy diet and lifestyle.


Concern: I am not able to perform high-intensity workouts; can I still lose belly fat?

Recommendation: Definitely. Weight loss and belly fat reduction are possible through low to moderate-intensity exercises as well. Walking, yoga, and swimming are excellent alternatives that are easier on the body while still promoting weight loss.


Concern: Can I regain my pre-pregnancy body completely?

Recommendation: Each woman’s body responds differently to pregnancy and post-pregnancy exercises. With consistent effort, a balanced diet, and a dedicated exercise routine, many women successfully regain their pre-pregnancy bodies, though it might not be an exact replication. Celebrate your body’s achievements and focus on being healthy and strong rather than adhering strictly to pre-pregnancy aesthetics.


The Expert Advice Corner aims to shed light on the journey of post-pregnancy belly reduction, providing expert insights and recommendations for effectively navigating through exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery. Acknowledging and addressing your concerns, understanding that each body is unique, and implementing expert advice into your routine are pivotal steps toward achieving and maintaining a flat tummy post-pregnancy.

The Holistic Approach to Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery


A holistic approach to post-pregnancy belly reduction encompasses not just physical, but also dietary and mental health components. Engaging in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery is crucial, but its efficacy is significantly enhanced when combined with proper nutrition, lifestyle adjustments, and attention to mental well-being.

Combining Exercise, Diet, and Lifestyle for Optimal Results

Embarking on a regimen focusing on exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery is a commendable step. However, without integrating dietary and lifestyle modifications, achieving optimal results might be elusive.


  • Balanced Diet: Adopting a diet that is rich in essential nutrients while low in empty calories is foundational. Incorporate an abundance of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains into your daily intake. These foods not only provide the necessary nutrients for recovery and breastfeeding but also help maintain energy levels and facilitate weight loss.
  • Consistent Exercise: Consistency in exercise for reduce belly fat after deliver” is pivotal. Establish a routine that is sustainable, incorporating various forms of exercise to keep it engaging and enjoyable. This routine should involve a combination of aerobic, strength, and flexibility exercises.
  • Healthy Lifestyle Practices: Lifestyle habits, including adequate sleep, stress management, and avoiding harmful behaviors like smoking, are crucial. Such practices not only foster a conducive environment for weight loss but also contribute to overall health and well-being.

Importance of Mental Health and Self-Care in the Belly-Reduction Journey

While engaging in exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery is essential, neglecting mental health can impede your progress.


  • Stress Management: Stress can be a significant barrier to weight loss. High-stress levels can lead to emotional eating, cravings, and disinterest in exercise. Engage in practices like yoga, meditation, deep breathing, or any activity that helps reduce stress.
  • Positive Self-Image: It’s vital to maintain a positive view of your body. The changes your body undergoes during and after pregnancy are monumental. Acknowledge and celebrate every small win in your journey, understanding that progress is a success.
  • Community Support: Having a supportive community or group can be immensely beneficial. Engage with other new moms, join support or exercise groups, and don’t hesitate to seek professional help if you’re feeling overwhelmed or depressed.

Self-Care Practices

Self-care practices are non-negotiables in the journey of exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery and post-pregnancy recovery.


  • Adequate Rest: Ensure you’re getting enough sleep. Sleep deprivation can lead to weight gain and a host of other health issues.
  • Hydration: Drinking plenty of water aids in digestion, supports metabolism, and helps in maintaining healthy skin.
  • Personal Time: Dedicate time to engage in activities you enjoy and that relax you. Reading a book, taking a warm bath, or simply spending time in nature can be rejuvenating.


The holistic approach to post-pregnancy belly reduction integrates exercise for reduce belly fat after delivery with a balanced diet, a healthy lifestyle, and a focus on mental health and self-care. Together, these components create a synergy that not only facilitates a more effective and sustainable belly reduction journey but also promotes overall health and well-being. Embracing this comprehensive approach, new mothers can navigate through the challenges of post-pregnancy belly reduction with resilience, patience, and grace, leading to a happier and healthier life for themselves and their families.


FAQs about Exercise for Reduce Belly Fat After Delivery

  • When can I start exercises to reduce belly fat after delivery?

    The ideal time to start exercises varies. For normal deliveries, it's typically safe to begin light exercises after 6 weeks, while C-section deliveries may require a waiting period of 8-10 weeks. However, it's crucial to consult your healthcare provider to get personalized advice and ensure it's safe to commence with any exercise regimen.

  • What are the most effective exercises for reducing belly fat post-delivery?

    A combination of cardiovascular, strength training, and targeted abdominal exercises is generally effective. Cardio exercises like walking or cycling help burn calories, while strength training builds muscle mass, boosting your metabolism. Targeted exercises like planks, crunches, and pelvic tilts can help tone and tighten your abdominal muscles. Always start slowly and gradually increase exercise intensity.

  • How important is diet in reducing belly fat after delivery?

    Diet plays a pivotal role. While exercise helps you burn calories, a nutritious and balanced diet is essential for providing the energy you need and facilitating weight loss. Focus on whole foods, incorporate a variety of fruits and vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains, and minimize the intake of processed and sugary foods.

  • Can I only rely on abdominal belts to get a flat belly post-pregnancy?

    Abdominal belts can offer support to your belly and help improve posture but should not be relied upon solely for reducing belly fat. They are to be used as supplementary tools alongside a regimen of balanced diet and exercise. Always consult with a healthcare provider or a fitness expert before incorporating these tools into your routine.

  • How do I stay motivated throughout the belly-reduction journey?

    Setting realistic goals, celebrating small wins, maintaining a consistent routine, and having a support system can keep you motivated. Understanding that progress takes time and effort, being patient with yourself, and staying committed to your exercise and dietary plan are key to achieving long-term success in reducing belly fat post-delivery. You might also consider joining a group of new moms with similar goals or hiring a fitness trainer specializing in postpartum exercise for additional support and motivation.

Michael J. Ormsbee
Michael J. Ormsbee
Michael J. Ormsbee is the editor of Fast Lose Fat. He is an Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Sciences and Interim Director of the Institute of Sports Sciences and Medicine in the College of Human Sciences at Florida State University.